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Thursday, 12 January 2017

IELTS GENERAL TRAINING READING - 1


IELTS GENERAL TRAINING READING


(Download PDF)

SECTION-1
Questions 1 - 14
Read the text below and answer Questions 1-7.

Hi-Hello Calling Card Company
- Card descriptions -

Hi-Hello Calling Card Company offers you a range of international calling cards. Our cards enable you to call overseas 24 hours a day at a cost effective rate.  We offer a choice of four cards: US-Can, Go-Asia, Afri-Call and Eureka.  The call rates are based on the country called.

US-Can
An ideal card for personal calls to the United States and Canada.  Offers peak and off-peak rates.  Different rates for calling landlines and mobile phones.  Available in $10, $20 and $50.  Expiry period is 6 months once activated.  Buy a $20 card and receive 5% worth of value credit or buy a $50 card and receive an extra 10% worth of value credit for free!

Go-Asia
Ideal for executives making calls to Asia.  Flat rates apply – whether mobile or land line.  Available in $50 and $100 price options (cards expire after five months).  To ease congestion, within the next 3 months 3 more phone lines will be added.  $50 cards come with a bonus 100 minutes.  All cards may be recharged by calling our hotline 1800 021 003 (payment by credit card only).

Afri-Call
For both business and personal use, Afri-Call is a great option.  No other card in the market offers such low-priced rates for calls to Africa.  Service will include Ethiopia in 2 months.  Calls charged in 1 minute increments.  Cards expire five months after activation.  Customers can check calling record with online feature and can print it out for FREE.  Card varieties - $10, $30 and $100.

Eureka
World-class business-focused calling service to Europe.  New features added every 6 months.  Fax facilities to any European countries using Eureka cards are currently offered.  Faxes (per page) are charged at the same rate as calls (per minute). Additional time may be purchased online (see our website for details).  The clear leader in global rates.  Upcoming feature – bonus minutes at no extra cost on cards over $75.  Also available are $30, $50, $75 and $100 cards.  Cards expire within three months of activation

Hi-Hello Calling Card Company -
Card Options
Rates per minute
USA & Canada
Asia
Africa
Europe
Australia & NZ
Remarks
US-Can
50 cents
$1.00
90 cents
70 cents
70 cents
Value Credit options
Go-Asia
$1.00
30 cents
75 cents
80 cents
90 cents
Bonus 100 mins for $50 cards
Afri-Call
$1.10
$1.00
40 cents
90 cents
75 cents
Calling record check facility
Eureka
90 cents
45 cents
70 cents
30 cents
60 cents
Off peak rate 30% lower

Off peak hours: Monday – Friday 11:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m.
Peak hours: All other times

Questions 1-7
Classify the following features as being  
               


                A              part of the US-Can card
                B             part of the Go-Asia card
                C             part of the Afri-Call card
                D             part of the Eureka card
                E              not part of ANY card 



Write the correct letter A, B, C, D or E in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.
1          Allows customers to review who they called.
2          Has no expiry period.
3          Has the shortest expiry period and the lowest rates to New Zealand.    
         The minimum call cost is 60 seconds.   
5          Charges a 5% connection fee.
         The highest priced card that offers an additional benefit.
7          Overall, it offers the cheapest rates.


 Read the text and answer Questions 8-14.

West Coast Beach

IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTICE
This leaflet has been placed by the West Coast City Council to ensure the safety of all beach visitors.  Our purpose is to inform all visitors of some basic safety rules.  We strongly urge all beachgoers to heed the information that follows.

Swimming
There are three different kinds of flags that are positioned in different areas according to conditions.  The area between two red flags indicates high instability - deep water and unpredictable waves – no swimming allowed.  Green flags are placed 100 metres apart and indicate that swimming for competent swimmers is safe but conditions are unstable for weaker swimmers.  Ideal conditions for swimming exist for both adults and children between yellow flags.  Non-swimmers should not attempt to swim in the ocean.  Even if you consider yourself to be a competent swimmer, always swim between the yellow flags.  The probability of drowning at an unsupervised beach is 10 times greater than at a beach with a lifeguard on duty.  Irrespective of how competent a swimmer you are, the council’s decree is never swim alone!

Waves sometimes carry strong currents or ‘rips’ that are created by water volume and gravity.  Rips can make swimming very difficult and you can be pulled out to sea.  If you are swimming between the flags, use the distress signal – wave one arm above your head – to gain the attention of a lifeguard.  If you are caught in a rip and are swimming outside a flagged area, do not try to swim against it, instead float (the most comfortable way is typically on your back) and relax - do not struggle to swim back to the shore.  When you are feeling a little more relaxed, swim parallel to the shore until you are out of the strong current or ‘rip’ zone and then swim to the shore.

On the Beach
Drinking alcohol on the beach is prohibited.  Never swim if you have been drinking alcohol or have eaten a large meal.  We have encountered a significant portion of drowning incidents that were caused by alcohol.

The north end of the beach has a rocky cliff.  Avoid walking on the rocks as they are often very slippery.  In order to avoid cuts, scrapes and even broken bones, adults should keep children under close observation at all times. 

From about 10am to 2pm, the sun is at its most dangerous.  During these times, make sure you are wearing sunscreen, a shirt and a hat while at the beach.  Exposure of the skin to the sun at these times can carry with it the threat of skin cancer.  Children’s skin is especially vulnerable; ensure that they are protected. 

* If you have any further enquiries, please visit the Lifeguard Office *
Enjoy your day at the beach!



Questions 8-14
Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the text for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 8-14 on your answer sheet.

8          What is it that determines which flags are used?
9          What is used to indicate unsafe beach conditions?
10        Who should NOT swim between the green flags?
11        What is the rule all swimmers must follow?
12        What should swimmers do if caught in a rip outside a flagged area?
13        What is most at risk in the midday sun?
14        Which location should swimmers go to if they have questions?



SECTION-2
Questions 15-27
Read the passage below and answer Questions 15-20.

A.     We at Industrial Business Solutions (IBS) value you as a member of our team.  We understand that our future success can only be achieved if you are also able to achieve your goals and objectives within your area of employment.
               
B.     At IBS, our business is growing.  As one of the world’s largest and leading organisations in the area of telecommunications we take pride in both the reliability of our products and the level of customer support we offer.  Both of these key areas cannot be successfully negotiated without a quality team.
                 
C.     IBS is dedicated to the on-going training and development of the team to ensure a quality focus across all departments. 
                 
D.     At our Leading in Times of Change workshop, participants will engage in a number of personal development activities.  Central to this session will be the personal mission statement.  Participants will be able to explore relationships both personal and within the business context to define what matters most to them.  This has proven to be one of our most popular workshops.
                 
E.     Additional workshops across a variety of topics are covered.  Previous participants have commented that the sessions were both informative and beneficial.  One manager reported a 25% improvement in production.  Such feedback has been very satisfying. 
                 
F.     We continue our tradition of staff development programs.  As a member of our company you will be required to attend 3 sessions over the course of the year.  We offer over 20 courses on a variety of topics all aimed at improving personal awareness within the workplace and beyond.  It is our conviction that an engaged employee is a happy employee.
                 
G.     Registration can be done through the staff website.  You are required to select relevant workshops in consultation with your supervisor.  This ensures that there is no confusion in relation to time off for the workshops.  Click on the ‘workshops’ link and from the list of options available, click on the topics you have selected.  You will need to supply your date of birth, IBS identification number and department name.   
                 
H.     While we are pleased for you to participate with members of your department, we also encourage inter-department involvement.  Since no particular area stands alone, it is useful for participants to become familiar with those in other areas across IBS.
                 
I.      Professional development does not need to be limited to in-house workshops.  For those wanting to expand their knowledge and skills in areas related to their area of expertise, we are prepared to offer partial scholarships to select universities.  Requests should be sent to the Personnel Manager in the first instance.   

Question 15
Choose the correct letter A-E.

What would be the most suitable title for the passage?
               


A              Becoming an IBS staff member
B              Staff training at IBS      
C              Registering on the IBS staff website
D              IBS staff procedures
E              Common questions staff ask about IBS 



Questions 16 - 20
The text has six sections, A-I.
Which section contains the following information? Write your answers A-I in boxes 16-20 on your answer sheet.
NB      You may use any letter more than once.

16        Remarks from past attendees.
17        Involvement from a staff administrator is needed.
18        Support available for further training at other intuitions.
19        The commitment of IBS to its staff.
20        The requirement to provide personal information.


Read the text and answer Questions 21-27.
HOME BUSINESS: Points to Consider

Home businesses have seen exceptional growth over the past decade with approximately 150 million people in the United States running a home-based business.  

There are two important points to making a profit which are valid no matter what product or service you are planning to promote.  Having the idea is just the start.  The focus must be on whether there is a market for your product.  The main consideration should not just be whether you like what you are planning to sell, but whether other people will like it and want to spend money on it.

Do your research.  A trip to the library and a couple of evenings online will assist you in beginning to understand your market.  Your goal should be to get a general sense of the type of customer your product or service will attract.

Business registration is a requirement and involves several areas.  A legitimate structure must be determined and the most popular options are sole proprietor, a partnership, or a company.  City Business Assistance can help with information about sole proprietorships and partnerships.  Individuals needing help with registering a corporation should Legal Structures Corp.  Deciding upon your business name and getting your federal tax identification are also a part of the business registration process. 

Obtaining reliable financial advice is another important consideration.  Small Business Administration (SBA) is a United States government agency providing financial support for small businesses.  Locate a reliable mid-range accounting firm that will help you structure the financial side of your business and provide you with the taxation advice you may need.

Insurance must be a part of your planning.  Consultation with an insurance agent is highly recommended.  Contact Able Insurance for insurance matters under $1 million and Constar for all other amounts.

Equipment and inventory are important considerations as well.  What equipment will be needed to provide the service or product you intend to offer?  How much stock will you need and do you have the room for it?  These questions must be carefully considered and answered.

Many home businesses are online.  If this is your plan, you will need to purchase a domain name and locate an Internet Service Provider (ISP).  Costing varies mostly according to data downloaded.  Connection speed can also affect the internet cost.     

For additional assistance on any of the above matters, please contact the county extension office nearest you or the National Directorate for state enquiries.

Questions 21-27
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the text for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 21-27 on your answer sheet.

21           What is the first listed key for a home business profit?
22           Which area of home business planning includes federal tax identification?
23           Who can be contacted for advice about the legal structure of an independently run business?
24           Who can provide help with getting money for a home business?
25           Which company provides insurance assistance up to $1 million?
26           What is the main cost associated with internet services? 
27           Who can be contacted for extra local small business help?


SECTION-3
Read the passage and answer questions 28-40.

Olefin Fibre: A New Dimension in Textiles

A  By definition, textile refers to a flexible material made up of either natural or artificial fibres.  Usually a textile is produced by spinning raw fibres on a spinning wheel and converting them into long strands of thread or yarn.  Textile fibres used to be broadly categorised as: animal fibre – those which are made up of animal hair and fur or; plant fibre - those which are derived from plants.  The invention of olefin fibre however, added a new dimension to the traditional categories of textile fibres.

B  Olefin fibre is a complex fibre made from alkenes, which, in organic chemistry, are ‘unsaturated chemical compounds made up of carbon1’.  The properties of olefin partially reflect the properties of synthetics, which is why it is defined as a ‘chemically manipulated synthetic fibre’.  Two properties of olefin that match the properties of synthetics are that it is man-made and its production involves the amalgamation of a set of different fibres.

C  The discovery of olefin was due to extensive research first undertaken in Italy.  In 1957, the Textile Research Laboratory of Italy began experiments to find a liquid solution that would coat fibres in such a way that the textiles made from those fibres would become strong enough to be used in the production of clothing.  The scientists at the laboratory noticed that chemical ingredients, consisting mostly of carbon, showed a tendency to create strong bonds with cotton and thus, could be treated as a ‘knitting ingredient’ rather than a ‘coating ingredient’.  The initial testing of olefin yielded favourable results but surprisingly, only a few leading textile manufacturing firms in Italy profited from larger-scale manufacturing and sales.  Encouraged by the modest success in Italy, the USA was one of the earliest adopters of olefin and began commercial manufacturing on a sizable scale in 1960.  Today, olefin fibre is produced in over 10 countries around the world and accounts for 16% of all textile fibres manufactured worldwide.

D  Textile researchers view the invention of olefin as important due to its strength, thickness and low specific gravity - all of which ensured that the fibres were strong without being overly heavy.  Before the invention of olefin, textiles that were strong were also quite heavy, and a heavy textile meant it was less comfortable for the wearer and involved higher carriage costs from mills to marketplaces.  During the 1990s, scientists in the USA improved upon both the manufacturing process and construction of olefin fibres so that they were able to absorb some moisture - an aspect which was missing from the initial forms of olefin.  With improvements in colourfastness, greater strength and the ability to resist sunlight, there have been even greater advances in the production of olefin in recent times.

E  Despite significant advantages, two major disadvantages of olefin are that it does not dye well and it is expensive to produce.  The first disadvantage is due to the production process; the fibres are bonded at such high temperatures that the addition of colour is impeded.  Olefin fibres can only absorb select light colours like white, off-white and light yellow.  However, it is possible to add darker colours by making the bonds weaker, the trade-off being that the threads lose some of their strength.  From a functional point of view, strength is more important than colour.  The second disadvantage of olefin is the hydro-spinning mill setup and thermal control equipment that are required in the manufacturing process - both are very expensive to install and maintain.

Worldwide, olefin is used in the apparel, home furnishing and automotive industries.  In the apparel industry, comfortable but expensive active wear can be made of olefin, particularly in the area of professional swimming.  Although olefin is very warm, winter clothes are not typically made from it due to its high manufacturing price.  In the home furnishing industry, olefin is often used to produce carpets, carpet tiles and other floor coverings.  In expensive automobiles, interior coverings and sun visors are often made of olefin. 

G  Unlike numerous manufacturers of traditional textiles, there are very few olefin manufacturers around the world.  Today, most olefin production firms are based in the USA, England and China.  In the global marketplace, China has been able to export the most olefin.  China’s low labour cost has enabled the country to offer olefin textiles to the global market at a comparatively low price. 

H  British scientists, in collaboration with some giant European textile manufacturing companies, are now conducting extensive research to reduce olefin production costs.  The challenge is to decrease the production costs without losing any of the unique properties of the textile.  If the research is successful, then olefin may become a regular component of everyday clothing. 


1A chemical substance which is an important part of other substances (such as coal) and occurs in all plants and animals.

Questions 28-32
The passage has eight paragraphs A-H. Which paragraph mentions the following information?
Write the correct letter A-H in boxes 28-32 on your answer sheet.  NB You may use any letter more than once.

28        the machines used to produce olefin
29        the benefit of olefin over other textiles
30        an expected outcome once the cost of making olefin is reduced
31        a change in the classification of textile fibres
32        various commercial uses of olefins

Questions 33-36
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.

33        What is the main chemical in olefin?
34        In which country was olefin first used commercially?
35        Who are particularly interested in the weight and strength of olefin?
36        In addition to fibre construction, what other improvement occurred in the 1990s?

Questions 37-40
Do the following information agree with the information given in the passage?
In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE
if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE
if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN
if there is no information on this

37        In the 1990s, olefin production costs were reduced.
38        High production temperatures cause reduced colour in olefin fibres.
39        Lighter coloured olefin is not as strong as darker coloured olefin.
40        China currently leads the world in olefin production. 




Answers

1           C

2           E

3           D

4           C
5           E
6           A
7           D
8           Conditions
9           (Two) Red Flags
10        Weaker Swimmers
11        Never swim alone
12        Float and relax
13        Children’s skin
14        the Lifeguard Office
15       B
16        E
17        G
18        I
19        C
20        G
21        having the idea
22        Business registration
23        City Business Assistance
24        Small Business Administration OR SBA
25        Able Insurance
26        data downloaded
27        county extension office
28        E
29        D
30        H
31        A
32        F
33        Carbon
34        Italy
35        Textile researchers
36        the manufacturing process
37        Not Given
38        True
39        False
40        Not Given