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Sunday, 15 January 2017




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Long-haul Flights Get Longer

Long-haul flights have just got longer, with a non-stop flight from Singapore to New York now in operation. But 18 hours in the air creates its own challenges. A lot of preparation goes into the ultra long haul flight. The aircraft is specifically designed for the journey with more space and extensive entertainment services. The flight crew are also specially trained.
The seasoned traveller is also more aware of the health risks associated with a flight that covers as much as 16,600-kilometers (10,310-miles) in distance. Exposure to lower oxygen levels for up to 18, maybe 20, hours is abnormal for the human body. With deep vein thrombosis (DVT) the problem really starts occurring after 12 hours (in-flight). This could lead to an increase in heart attacks.
Doctors believe prevention is better than cure when it comes to in-flight health. Passengers on ultra long range flights need to be provided with flight socks and, if necessary, tablets for thinning the blood. It is not just the health and vitality of the passenger that is at stake on a flight of this length, but also that of the flight crew. "They give us training on fatigue management and how to adjust to the local time in New York and to exercise, as well as take care our diet and eat lightly in-flight," says Linda Wu, a stewardess on Singapore Airlines.
However, passengers are trading in health concerns for convenience. An extra- long flight means passengers do not need to break up their journey and change planes. "They like to board once, de-plane once. It is saving time," says James Williams from Singapore Airlines.
"From Los Angeles to Singapore, passengers are saving two and a half hours. And to New York passengers are saving up to four hours in flying time." Thai Airways is also launching a non-stop service to New York from Bangkok next June to compete with Singapore Airlines. It is planning a similar service to Chicago. Cathay Pacific, Continental, Qantas and Emirates Airlines also offer flights that are more than 14 hours in duration. However, there is still a question of whether longer non-stop flights will become popular. "They will certainly have a role in the future of aviation, there is no doubt about it. People will prefer to fly non-stop if it is available," says Chris Johnson, an airline analyst. "But we are reaching the limits. These markets are at the very margin of aviation. Most airlines still fly in the eight to 12-hour sector. This is still where the biggest volume in traffic is." Avery believes that geography will determine the demand for the ultra long-haul flight and that worldwide appeal for this type of flight is unlikely. "Asia is where the demand is for the ultra long-haul flight. They are connecting Asian cities to the U.S. East Coast, which is the big market," he explains. "The routes that connect most places that European business travellers go do not need a capacity and endurance to fly 18-hours -- this is the same for U.S. carriers."
Questions 1 - 5
1. Why are longer flights potentially harmful to passengers and crew?
 a) Because there isn't as much oxygen in the air. 
 b) People will get bored 
 c) long periods of inactivity will damage their bones 

2.   What are flight socks?
 a) special socks to keep the plane free of harmful bacteria 
 b) one of the preventive measures planned by airlines 
 c) socks that stop your blood getting too thin 

3. Which of the following methods of countering the health problems caused by long flights is NOT mentioned?
 a) how best to cope with jet lag 
 b) advice on food consumption during a flight 
 c) advice on drinking alchohol  

4.   What are the advantages of longer flights?
 a) There are less problems with jet lag 
 b) passengers save time 
 c) passengers get a good break between flights 

5.   Where is the market for longer flights expected to develop?
 a) between Europe and America 
 b) between Asia and America 
 c) between Asia and Europe 

Westley Business School

Preparation Courses for Students
80% of the students who take our courses are mature students who have not done any formal study for several years. Many of the courses at the Westley Business School require a good knowledge of various skills. If you feel you need some extra preparation before your course, look below and see if any of our preparation courses suit your needs. All courses take place in August and for enrolled students, all the courses listed below are free.

Course 1                                 STATISTICS
A grounding in statistics is a must for any prospective business student. This is a one week course (Mon - Fri) consisting of 1 lecture every night. The tutor will ensure that by the end of the course, you will have had a thorough introduction to all the statistical skills that you will need to start your course at Westley Business School. Each lecture runs from 6pm to 9pm.

Course 2                                 ESSAY WRITING
This is a self-study pack containing guidance, practice and tests. At the end of the course (it should take about 10 hours of self-study) you will receive a 1 hour tutorial with the essay writing tutor who will go over your work with you.

Course 3                                 BASIC MATHS
This is a one-off lecture of 3 hours aimed at reviewing all the basic maths that you will vaguely remember from school! This course is run on a “first come, first served” basis and there are only 20 places (every Monday in August from 5.45pm - 8.45pm) so don’t be late.

Course 4                                COMPUTING
This 2 week course (Mon - Fri 6.30pm - 8.30pm) will give students all the basic computer skills that they will need for their courses at Westley Business School. There are 2 courses running concurrently with only 10 PLACES in each so book early!


Questions 6 - 10
Read the Information Notice concerning Preparation Courses for students at the Westley Business School.
Using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS, answer the following questions.
Write your answers in boxes 21-25 on your answer sheet.

6 Which course is mostly without a teacher?
7 On which course can you NOT pre-book a place?
8 How many hours does Course 1 take?
9 How many places are there every week for students who want to study computers?
10 Which course takes place only on one day in a specified week?

Questions 11-13
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer of the Information Notice concerning Preparation Courses for students at the Westley Business School?In Boxes 26 - 28 write:
YES if the statement agrees with the writer
NO if the statement doesn’t agree with the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

11 Students registered at Westley Business College don’t have to pay for the preparation course.
12 Most students at Westley Business School are older than the average student.
13 All courses are held in the Westley Business School main building.

Do you want to have the best summer holiday ever?
Have you just graduated and want to escape for a unique experience abroad?

Only $1950 will make It all happen!
This unbeatable program fee includes:
•    return flight from Sydney to Los Angeles (onward travel in USA not included)
•    3 months' insurance cover
•    2 nights' accommodation on arrival plus meet and greet and airport transfer
•    arrival orientation by experienced InterExchange staff
•    visa application fees

You also have:

•    access to a J l visa enabling you to work in the USA
•    an extensive directory of employers
•    InterExchange support throughout the program
•    24-hour emergency support throughout the length of the program
Call toll-free 1800 678 738
InterExchange has 50 years' experience in international student exchange programs. 18,000 students from around the world travel yearly to the USA on this very program. InterExchange con also offer you work opportunities in other countries.

InterExchange, one of the world's leading operators of international exchange programs and related services:
•    is a non-profit, non-governmental organisation
•    has 700 professional staff in 30 countries worldwide
•    was founded in 1947

InterExchange operates these programs for students all around the world. It offers you trained and travelled staff, plus full support during the application process. You can choose any job that interests you anywhere in the USA, whether that is working in a law firm in Boston, a famous ski resort in Colorado or serving coffee and doughnuts in the bzzing streets of New York. You can select the period you work and the period you travel; you may want to work for 1 month and travel for 3, or work the entire duration of your stay. The choice is yours.


•    a full-time student at an Australian university or TAFE college
•    presently enrolled, or finishing this year, or you have deferred a year of study
•    over 18 years old by November in the academic year in which you apply to InterExchange
•    enthusiastic about the experience of a lifetime ...

Sign up now!!

        File                      edit                      View                      Go                      Communicator                       Help

A about Arthur Phillip College
G learning methods
B entry requirements
H course fees
C orientation for new students
I study commitment
D academic counselling service
J assessment and results
E credit courses to university
K social activities and clubs
F assistance for international students
L what's new

Questions 14-19
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the advertisement.
In boxes 15-20 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE    if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE    if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN    if there is no information on this

14 The program cost includes internal flights within the USA.
15 Emergency assistance offered in the program includes legal advice.
16 InterExchange offers similar programs in countries other than the USA.
17 InterExchange is part of a government program.
18 There are no restrictions on the type of job you can do.
19 There is an upper age limit for applicants.  

Questions 20-26
Each of the short paragraphs below (20-26) gives information about Arthur Phillip College.
Read each paragraph and choose which of the linked sections of the website, A-L, would contain this information.
Write the correct letter A-L in boxes 20-26 on your answer sheet.

20 All students receive a transcript of results and relevant award documentation when they end their studies with the College.

21 On enrolment, all students receive automatic membership to the Social Club and Public Speaking Club. Students may choose to participate in any arranged activities. The College encourages and promotes interaction between students and teaching and non-teaching staff.

22 Successful completion and the achievement of an A or B result in some courses will enable students to achieve advanced standing in these subjects if they proceed to university study. For a list of the courses acceptable to a particular university, a-mail us your request with the name of the university and the course you are interested in.

23 Arthur Phillip College is one of the top business colleges in Sydney, Australia. The College offers a wide range of educational and training programs in business and related areas. Its accredited vocational training courses are designed to meet the needs of individual students and industry.

24 At Arthur Phillip College you will learn from lectures, seminars, case studies, group projects, individual assignments and class workshops. Lectures and seminars present concepts and ideas and provide for question-and-answer sessions. Students are expected to take an active role in the learning process through class participation, presentations and projects.

25 Courses at Arthur Phillip College involve an average of 25 hours per week of tuition time, with supervised group study accounting for a further 5 hours per week. At least 10 hours per week of individual study is also recommended for most courses.

26 During this program you will meet the Director of Studies, teachers and key administrative staff such as the Accommodation Officer and Student Counsellor so that, right from your first day, you will know how each of them can help you during your time at the College. 

The Lack Of Sleep
Section A
It is estimated that the average man or woman needs between seven-and-a-half and eight hours' sleep a night. Some can manage on a lot less. Baroness Thatcher, for example, was reported to be able to get by on four hours' sleep a night when she was Prime Minister of Britain. Dr Jill Wilkinson, senior lecturer in psychology at Surrey University and co-author of 'Psychology in Counselling and Therapeutic Practice', states that healthy individuals sleeping less than five hours or even as little as two hours in every 24 hours are rare, but represent a sizeable minority.

Section B
The latest beliefs are that the main purposes of sleep are to enable the body to rest and replenish, allowing time for repairs to take place and for tissue to be regenerated. One supporting piece of evidence for this rest-and¬repair theory is that production of the growth hormone somatotropin, which helps tissue to regenerate, peaks while we are asleep. Lack of sleep, however, can compromise the immune system, muddle thinking, cause depression, promote anxiety and encourage irritability.

Section C
Researchers in San Diego deprived a group of men of sleep between Sam and lam on just one night, and found that levels of their bodies' natural defences against viral infections had fallen significantly when measured the following morning. 'Sleep is essential for our physical and emotional well-being and there are few aspects of daily living that are not disrupted by the lack of it', says Professor William Regelson of Virginia University, a specialist in insomnia. 'Because it can seriously undermine the functioning of the immune system, sufferers are vulnerable to infection.'

Section D
For many people, lack of sleep is rarely a matter of choice. Some have problems getting to sleep, others with staying asleep until the morning. Despite popular belief that sleep is one long event, research shows that, in an average night, there are five stages of sleep and four cycles, during which the sequence of stages is repeated.

In the first light phase, the heart rate and blood pressure go down and the muscles relax. In the next two stages, sleep gets progressively deeper. In stage four, usually reached after an hour, the slumber is so deep that, if awoken, the sleeper would be confused and disorientated. It is in this phase that sleep-walking can occur, with an average episode lasting no more than 15 minutes. In the fifth stage, the rapid eye movement (REM) stage, the heartbeat quickly gets back to normal levels, brain activity accelerates to daytime heights and above and the eyes move constantly beneath closed lids as if the sleeper is looking at something. During this stage, the body is almost paralysed. This REM phase is also the time when we dream.

Section E
Sleeping patterns change with age, which is why many people over 60 develop insomnia. In America, that age group consumes almost half the sleep medication on the market. One theory for the age-related change is that it is due to hormonal changes. The temperature General Training: Reading and Writing rise occurs at daybreak in the young, but at three or four in the morning in the elderly. Age aside, it is estimated that roughly one in three people suffer some kind of sleep disturbance. Causes can be anything from pregnancy and stress to alcohol and heart disease. Smoking is a known handicap to sleep, with one survey showing that ex-smokers got to sleep in 18 minutes rather than their earlier average of 52 minutes.

Section F
Apart from self-help therapy such as regular exercise, there are psychological treatments, including relaxation training and therapy aimed at getting rid of pre-sleep worries and anxieties. There is also sleep reduction therapy, where the aim is to improve sleep quality by strictly regulating the time people go to bed and when they get up. Medication is regarded by many as a last resort and often takes the form of sleeping pills, normally benzodiazepines, which are minor tranquillisers.

Section G
Professor Regelson advocates the use of melatonin for treating sleep disorders. Melatonin is a naturally secreted hormone, located in the pineal gland deep inside the brain. The main function of the hormone is to control the body's biological clock, so we know when to sleep and when to wake. The gland detects light reaching it through the eye; when there is no light, it secretes the melatonin into the bloodstream, lowering the body temperature and helping to induce sleep. Melatonin pills contain a synthetic version of the hormone and are commonly used for jet lag as well as for sleep disturbance. John Nicholls, sales manager of one of America's largest health food shops, claims that sales of the pill have increased dramatically. He explains that it is sold in capsules, tablets, lozenges and mixed with herbs. It is not. effective for all insomniacs, but many users have weaned themselves off sleeping tablets as a result of its application

Questions 27-34
The passage has seven sections labelled A-G.
Which section contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-G in boxes 27-34 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.
27 the different amounts of sleep that people require
28 an investigation into the results of sleep deprivation
29 some reasons why people may suffer from sleep disorders
31 lifestyle changes which can help overcome sleep-related problems
31 a process by which sleep helps us to remain mentally and physically healthy
32 claims about a commercialised man-made product for sleeplessness
33 the role of physical changes in sleeping habits
34 the processes involved during sleep  

Questions 35-39
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the passage.
In boxes 35-39 on your answer sheet, write
T    if the statement agrees with the information
F    if the statement contradicts the information
NG    if there is no information on this

35 Sleep can cure some illnesses.  
36 The various stages of sleep occur more than once a night.
37 Dreaming and sleep-walking occur at similar stages of sleep.  
38 Sleepers move around a lot during the REM stage of sleep.  
The body temperature rises relatively early in elderly people. 

1. a 2. b 3. c 4. b 5. b 6. Course 2 7. Course 3 8. 15 hours 9. 20 10. Course 3 11. YES 12. YES 13. NOT GIVEN
Answer: 14 FALSE 15 NOT GIVEN 16 TRUE 17 FALSE 18 TRUE 19 NOT GIVEN 20 J 21 K 22 E 23 A 24 G 25 I 26 C
Answer: 27 A 28 C 29E 30 F 31 B 32 G 33 E 34 D 35 NG 36 T 37 F 38 F 39 T