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Tuesday, 20 June 2017

Ideas for IELTS Topic - Government and Society

Government and Society

What Governments Can Do
- Governments provide public services like healthcare and education
- They support people who are living in poverty or unable to work
- Governments raise money by taxing working people
- They can spend money on resources and campaigns
- They can introduce new laws
- They can impose taxes
- They can raise people’s awareness of issues (e.g. climate change/healthy eating)
- They can influence people’s habits and opinions
- They can create jobs/more job opportunities
- They can regulate the activities of companies such as banks
- They can provide resources for schools
- They are also responsible for the security and well-being of their citizens
- They control armed forces and police forces

Public Services
- Governments pay the salaries of public sector workers like police officers and teachers
- The necessary money is raised by taxing people’s income
- Free education and healthcare may be provided by the state
- Some governments control public transport systems and even TV channels
- In other countries, these services are provided by private companies
- Some people believe that competition between private companies is good
- It helps to improve quality while bringing prices down
- Other people think that essential services should be free
- Governments should pay for them

Censorship: Opinion
- Governments can censor what public sees or reads in the media
- To a certain extent censorship is necessary
- We should use censorship to protect children from violent images
- Some computer games involve killing people or committing crimes
- The Internet also needs to be controlled
- Many websites show pornography and violence
- There should be age limits for websites and computers games
- Parents need to take responsibility for checking what their children watch
- It is impossible for governments to control everything we see

Video Cameras in Public Places
- The use of CCTV is becoming widespread
- Video cameras have been installed in many public places
- They are supposed to protect us and deter criminals
- Many people think that this surveillance violates our privacy
- The authorities could build databases with our pictures and identities
- We should not be treated like criminals

Smart Cards: Positives
- Governments will probably introduce a digital identification card system
- Smart cards will have benefits and drawbacks
- They could help to reduce crime
- They could hold personal information, such as DNA
- Digital bank cards could contain fingerprint information
- It would be very difficult for criminals to use a stolen card
- It would be easier for police to identify people and catch criminals

Smart Cards: Negatives
- Many people are worried about losing their privacy
- Governments could store all our personal and medical information
- This information could be used by insurance companies
- Employers could check our health records

People with Disabilities
- People with disabilities should be treated the same as everybody else
- They should have the same rights as other people
- They should have access to the same jobs as other citizens
- Discriminations against disabled people is illegal in many countries
- Ramps and lifts for wheelchairs should be installed in public buildings

- Support teacher can be employed to help children with learning difficulties

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Thursday, 18 May 2017

Ideas for IELTS Topic - Gender

Ideas for IELTS Topic - Gender

Sunday, 14 May 2017

Ideas for IELTS Topic - Family

Family size
- Families in many countries are not as large as they used to be
- We tend to live in small nuclear families rather than large extended families
- Parents tend to have fewer children
- Young children are no longer expected to work
- Nowadays both parents often work
- It costs so much to bring children up
- It is more difficult to raise a large family

Working Parents
- Children and their parents seem to be less close nowadays
- Parents spend less time with their children
- Women traditionally stayed at home to cook, clean and look after children
- Nowadays both parents often work full time
- Children may be left alone, or with nannies or babysitters
- Busy parents have less contact with their children
- Many families no longer eat meals together
- Children spend more time with friends or surfing the Internet

Negative Effects on Children
- The lack of closeness in families can have a negative effect on children
- Many parents have no idea how their children spend their time
- Friends, television and the Internet become the main influence on children’s behavior
- Teenagers are influenced by peer pressure
- Some of them join gangs
- Juvenile delinquency is on the increase
- Parents should be more involved with their children’s upbringing
- Young people need positive role models

Divorce
- In the past, divorce was unacceptable
- It was considered to be embarrassing for a family
- People stayed together for religious or family reasons
- Divorce is more socially acceptable nowadays
- It has become much more common
- Divorce can be extremely stressful
- Lone parents may face financial difficulties
- Many single parents have to rely on benefits paid by the state
- Divorce can have a negative effect on children
- Children from single-parent families are more likely to get lower grades or drop out of school.
- The rise in divorce rates may be connected to some social problems

Care for Old people
- Caring for elderly people was traditionally the responsibility of families
- Adults had to look after their elderly parents
- A woman’s job was to stay at home taking care of her family
- Nowadays, fewer elderly people are looked after by their relatives
- Residential homes provide care for large number of elderly people
- Nursing homes can provide professional medical care
- Some families are unable to look after elderly relatives
- Families tend to be smaller these days, and women often have full-time jobs
- Cares homes provide a professional service for senior citizens
- Nurses are better trained than family members

Care for Old People: Opinion
- The best form of care for the elderly depends on the family situation
- It depends on whether family members have the time resources
- We all have a responsibility towards the older people in our society
- Governments should invest money in facilities and training for care workers or social service workers.


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Monday, 1 May 2017

Ideas for IELTS Topic - Environment

Global Warming
- Gases such as carbon dioxide trap heat from the sun
- This causes global temperatures to rise
- This process is known as the greenhouse effect
- Human activity is a major factor in the rise of the greenhouse gases
- Factories and vehicles produce emissions and exhaust fumes
- Many developing countries are becoming industrialized
- The number of cars on our streets is growing
- Cheap air travel is allowing more people to fly

Effects of Global Warming
- Global warming will have a significant impact on our planet
- Rising temperature will cause melting of the polar ice caps
- Sea levels will rise
- We can expect more extreme weather conditions
- Flooding and droughts may become more common

Impacts of Humans on the Environment
- The increasing world population is putting pressure on natural resources
- Fossil fuels like oil and gas are running out
- We are destroying wildlife habitats
- We have cut down enormous areas of rainforest
- This has led to the extinction of many species of animals and plants

Solutions to Environment Problems
- Governments could introduce laws to limit emissions from factories
- They should invest in renewable energy from solar, wind or water power
- They could impose ‘green taxes’ on drivers and airlines companies
- Government campaigns should promote recycling
- Natural areas and wild animals should be protected
- Individuals should also try to be greener
- We should take fewer flights abroad for holidays
- We should take public transport rather than driving
- We should choose products with less packaging
- We should recycle as much as possible

Waste/Rubbish
- The amount of waste that we produce has increased
- This problem is a result of our consumer culture
- Products are not made to last
- If something breaks, we throw it away and buy a new one
- Advertisers encourage to buy the newest fashions
- Packaging is an important part of selling
- Most foods are sold in non-biodegradable plastics packaging
- The amount of household waste is growing
- This waste ends up in landfill sites

Litter
- People do not think about the consequences of dropping rubbish
- They assume that somebody is paid to clean the street
- Plastic packaging does not break down easily
- Most of the litter seen on streets is fast food packaging

Recycling and other Solutions
- Companies should make goods that last longer
- They should not use so much packaging
- Governments should be stricter, about waste produced by companies
- They should put legal limits on packaging
- Consumers should avoid buying over-packaged products
- We should recycle and reuse useful materials.
- There are collection banks for glass, paper and plastic bottles
- Households can use several rubbish bins to separate waste
- Recycling saves energy and raw materials.

Nuclear Power: Positives
- There are several benefits to build more nuclear power stations
- Fossil fuel like oil and gas are running out
- Nuclear power is a sustainable energy source
- It can be used to produce electricity without wasting natural resources
- It could replace the use of natural resources like coal, oil or gas
- Nuclear power stations are cleaner than fossil fuel power stations
- They could help to reduce carbon emissions that cause global warming
- The risks of accidents are being reduced
- Nobody wants to live near one
- Nuclear waste disposal is a significant problem
- There is currently no way to decontaminate radioactive material
- People worry that terrorists could steal radioactive materials
- It is safer to produce energy from solar, wind or water power.

Saturday, 29 April 2017

Ideas for IELTS Topic - Crime

Police and Crime Prevention
- The job of the police is to catch criminals
- They must also prevent crime and make communities safer
- There should be an increase in the number of police officers on the streets
- Police officers should be seen as part of the community
- They should be involved with education and prevention
- The police should be in close contact with schools
- They should focus on young people who have dropped out of school
- These teenagers may become involved with gangs

Punishments/Prisons
- Fines are used as punishment for minor crimes
- If the crime is more serious, prison is the most common punishment
- Some criminals pose a threat to society
- They are put in prison to ensure the safety of other citizens

Negatives of Prisons
- Criminals are put together
- They make friends with other offenders
- Many prisoners re-offend when they are released
- A criminal record makes finding a job more difficult

Rehabilitation
- Another aim of prisons is rehabilitation
- Prisoners receive education of vocational training
- Prisoners should learn personal skills and specific job skills
- Punishment could make prisoners’ behavior worse
- Rehabilitation aims to make them better citizens
- Rehabilitated prisoners are less likely to re-offend

Capital Punishment
- Supporters say that capital punishment deters crime
- Fear of the death penalty stops people from committing offences
- The death penalty shows that crime is not tolerated
- It is a form of revenge
- The cost of imprisonment is avoided
- The offender cannot pose a threat to others

Against Capital Punishment
- Innocent people could be wrongly convicted and executed
- Crime rates are not necessarily reduced
- Many criminals do not think they will be caught
- Capital punishment is not a good deterrent
- Executing prisoners creates a violent culture and encourages revenge
- We have no right to take another human life

Community Service
- Community service is a way to reform offenders
- It could be a solution to prison overcrowding
- It avoids the cost of imprisonment
- It makes offenders useful in their local communities
- They are required to clean streets or talk to school groups
- Offenders repay their community
- They avoid the negative influence that prison can have.

Against Community Service
- Community service is not a sufficient punishment
- Criminals should be locked up, away from their victims

Crime in the Media
- Crime is one of the main subjects of most news programs.
- The mass media focus on violent and sensational crimes
- This leads to fear of crime among the public
- Sensational stories attract more viewers or readers
- The media report crime stories in order to increase their audience

Ideas for IELTS Topic - Cities

Reasons for Urbanization

- People move to cities in search of job opportunities
- Cities offer greater employment possibilities and a higher standard of living
- People migrate to cities from the countryside
- Traditional activities like farming need fewer workers nowadays

Negatives of City Life

- Life in cities has its drawbacks
- The cost of living is higher than in rural areas
- Some people do not manage to find work
- Housing is usually much more expensive
- Homelessness and poverty are common on cities
- There is a gap between rich and poor
 Life in cities can be extremely stressful
- There are problems like traffic congestion or traffic jams and crime
- Cities lack a sense of community
- People do not even know their neighbor(s)
- Cities are sometimes described as “concrete jungles”.

Pedestrian Areas

- Pedestrian zones in city center can improve the local environment
- Banning cars encourages people to walk or cycle
- Many European cities have built bicycle lanes
- Dependence on cars is linked to health problems like obesity
- People who walk or cycle regularly are generally healthier
- Pedestrian areas are safer and more attractive for both residents and tourists
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Thursday, 27 April 2017

Ideas for IELTS Topic - Tourism


Positives of Tourism

- Tourism is a popular leisure activity
- People go on holiday to relax and have fun
- Tourists can experience different cultures
- They can sunbathe on beaches or go sight-seeing
- Travelling abroad opens our minds and broadens our horizon
- We can learn to speak other languages
- The tourist trade is vital for some economies
- It creates employment in services like accommodation, transport and entertainment
- Some areas rely on tourism for their income
- Tourists spend money
- Tourism attracts investment from multi-national companies
- It helps to improve the standard of living
- Low-cost airlines are making it cheaper to travel abroad

Negative Effects of Tourism

- Tourism can have a negative effect on the natural environment
- The building of facilities and infrastructure can destroy the habitat of wild animals
- Beautiful beaches are spoilt by the building of hotels
- Tourism creates pollution and waste
- It puts pressure on local resources
- Local traditional and cultures may be endangered
- A rise in the cost of living affects local people
- The price of goods, services and housing may increase significantly

The Future of Tourism

- Government should introduce laws to protect natural environments and local cultures
- Tourism should have a low impact on wildlife
- Renewable resources like solar or water power should be used
- Waste should be recycled
- Local businesses such as farms should be supported

Ideas for IELTS Topic - Traditional vs. Modern

Losing Traditional Skills

- Because of industrialization and global trade, many traditions have disappeared
- Global advertising encourages everyone to buy the same products
- Most products are now made in factories
- Machinery has replaced skilled human labor
- Factory work is boring and leaves people feeling unfulfilled
- Goods are produced very quickly and in large numbers
- Products are cheaper, which means that more people can buy them

Examples
- Clothes are mass-produced in standard sizes
- People wear similar clothes, rather than traditional costumes
- Jeans and T-shirt are now worn throughout the world
- Historic buildings took skilled craftsmen years to build
- Modern concrete, steel and glass buildings are built in only weeks or months
- There are fewer people who can create hand-made goods

Traditional Customs

- Traditional customs are still important during weddings and religious festivals
- People wear traditional costumes and eat special ethnic foods
- It is important to maintain our different cultural identities
- We should celebrate festivals, teach traditional skills and protect historic places


Tuesday, 25 April 2017

Ideas for IELTS Topic - Transport

Traffic Problems

- Traffic congestion is caused by commuters travelling to work
- Most people live in the suburbs outside city center
- Commuters tend to travel at the same time of day
- They tend to travel alone
- Cars and road space are not used efficiently
- This causes traffic jams during the rush hour

Traffic Solutions

- In order to reduce traffic, we should change our working habits
- The internet can now be used to connect people
- More people could work from home
- Meetings can be held as video conferences
- Workers could be given flexible timetables
- Another solution would be to tax drivers
- Workers should share their cars and travel together
- In London, for example, there is a congestion charge
- This helps to raise money for better public transport
- Public transport needs to be reliable and efficient

Positives of Public Transport

- We need to reduce our dependence on cars
- Parking a car can be extremely difficult in big cities
- Well-designed transport systems are comfortable and convenient
- Modern public transport can be fast and cheap
- Public transport can help to reduce pollution in cities
- Investment in buses and trains will ease traffic congestion
- Buses can be given special lanes to avoid traffic

Negatives of Public Transport

- Public transport if often slow and unreliable
- Metro systems and trains are often dirty and crowded
- People feel like sardines in a can
- Cars are much more comfortable

Road Safety

- Driving while tired or drunk is extremely dangerous
- Mobile phones can be a dangerous distraction for drivers
- They draw the driver’s attention away from the road
- The use of phones while driving has been banned in many countries
- Punishments are becoming stricter
- Television campaigns are used to remind people to drive safely
- Speed cameras have become more common
- Speed bumps are another form of traffic calming

Ideas for IELTS Topic - Water

Importance of Clean Water

- Water is as necessary natural resource
- Humans need access to clean, safe drinking water in order to live
-  Poor water quality is a major cause of disease and death in some countries
- Water usually needs to be treated before we can drink it
- Developing countries often lack the means to treat and supply water to citizens
-  Developed countries tend to have much better sanitation
- Citizens have access to clean tap water
- Drinking water is not contaminated by sewage or waste water
- The supply of clean water would improve public health in many developing Countries

Water Supply

- Urban life would be impossible without water supply systems
- These systems are massive engineering projects
- Many professionals are involved in their planning, construction and maintenance
- The supply and distribution of water are major concerns
- Water is becoming scarce in some countries
- Areas that suffer droughts often need to import water
- As populations grow, there is more pressure on water supplies
- This could lead to a water crisis

Water and Politics

- The supply of water is also an important political issue
- Huge amounts of water are needed for agriculture and industry
- The irrigation of crops accounts for a large proportions of water use
- A water crisis could lead to political conflicts or even wars

Argument: Water should be Free

- Some people believe that water should be free for everyone
-  Governments should supply water to all homes at no cost
- Private companies should not be allowed to profit from this natural resource
- Money from taxes can be used to pay for water supply systems

Argument: Water should not be Free

- If water is free, people take it for granted
- They do not think about how much water they waste
- They leave taps running while washing or brushing their teeth
- If we have to pay for water, we will use it more responsibly
- Water supply systems are extremely expensive
- Investment is needed to maintain and improve them
- Private companies may provide a better service than governments
- If they provide an efficient service, they will make more money
- They will repair leaks to avoid losing money

Bottled Water: Opinions

- Some people carry bottles of water wherever they go
- For example, they take bottles of water to work or to the gym
- They believe that bottled water is healthier than tap water
- They also argue that it tastes better
- However, other people believe that we should consume less bottled water
- Plastic water bottles add to litter and waste problems
- Companies should not be able to make a profit from water
- It is unethical to make money by selling packaged water
- There is no difference in quality between bottled and tap water

Ideas for IELTS Topic - Work

Work

The Benefits of Staying in the Same Job for Life
- Employees have a stable career with one employer
- They have a good pension and health insurance
- Their salaries gradually increase
- They may be promoted within the organization
- They demonstrate loyalty
- Experienced staff can be trusted with more responsibility
- They become part of a team
- There is a clearly-defined path for development

The Benefits of not Staying in the Same Job
-  People often change jobs in order to further their career
- Another company may offer a promotion or a higher salary
- People who change jobs can gain more experience
- They can learn different skills
- Changing jobs is interesting and challenging
- People can retrain in a different occupation
- In a fast-changing world, workers need to be flexible
- People need to develop a wider range of experience and skills

Self-Employment
- Nowadays, it is easy to set up a company
- The internet provides a global marketplace
- Self-employment offers greater freedom than working for a company
- However, there are risks to starting a new business
- Self-employed people may face financial difficulties
- Many businesses fail to make a profit
- There is less stability in self-employment
- There are no benefits like pensions, sick pay and holiday pay
- Self-employment involves hard work, long hours and total responsibility

Unemployment
- Unemployment is a big problem for individuals, communities and the society
- Some people are unable to find a job
- They may not have the sufficient level of education or qualifications
- They may find themselves homeless
- Unemployment causes frustration and stress
- Jobless people may become involved in crime as a means to get money
- The unemployed need career advice
- Governments need to provide vocational courses and retraining

Unemployment Benefits: Positives
- Some governments pay unemployment benefits in order to help jobless people
- Unemployed people need financial support until they find a new job
- By claiming benefits, they can continue to pay for their major life expenses
- The benefits system helps to reduce poverty, homelessness and crime

Unemployment Benefits: Negatives
- Some people claim benefits rather than working
- They become dependent on the government
- They are not motivated to find a job
- The benefits system is a burden on tax payers
- All citizens should work to make a living and support themselves
- Receiving benefits affects people’s self-esteem

Work/Life Balance
- It is important to achieve a balance between work time and leisure or family time
- Too much work can result in stress and poor health
- Workaholics may neglect their families and friends
- People need to take regular holidays
- Companies should expect employees to work overtime
- Nowadays, many people work part-time or have flexible working hours
- Technology allows people to work from home, telecommuting is possible
- Many companies provide childcare facilities
- Striking a balance between a good life and a good work can raise job satisfaction
- Happy, healthy workers are more productive

Technology and Work
- The internet, fax and mobile phone technologies have revolutionized working life
- Workers can communicate via email, online networks and video conferencing
- Technology can connect workers in different countries from around the world
- It gives people more freedom
- It can also save time, energy and money
-  Some people believe that offices could disappear in the future
- Virtual online offices may replace them

Child Labor
- In some countries, children are exploited
- They do boring and repetitive jobs for very low pay
- Children are often used in agriculture and factory work
- The employment of children is prohibited in other countries
- Many people think that children should be free to enjoy their childhood
- Governments should make education a priority
- They should build new schools
- They should supply the necessary resources to educate children